The following is Part 2 of the complete text of the 61-page City Council report on the Center for
Animal Care and Control following its eight-month investigation.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DYING FOR HOMES:
ANIMAL CARE AND CONTROL IN NEW YORK CITY
(Part 2)


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


INTRODUCTION
In 1866, concerned by the treatment of streetcar horses in New York City, Henry Bergh founded the
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA)[1] "to provide effective means for
the prevention of cruelty to Animals throughout the United States."[2] "In its first year, the organization
managed to get the New York State Legislature to pass the country's first effective animal anti-cruelty
law. The following year, it began operating the first ambulance for injured horses."[3] Mr. Bergh and the
ASPCA championed the humane treatment of animals by patrolling the streets of New York City, warning
and arresting offenders, investigating complaints of animal abuse and educating the public.[4]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 / John J. Loeper, Crusade for Kindness: Henry Bergh and the ASPCA, New York: Atheneum, 1991, pp. 17-19.
2 / Annual Report, ASPCA, 1995.
3 / ASPCA Homepage, World Wide Web, (http:\\ www.aspca.org).
4 / John J. Loeper, Crusade for Kindness: Henry Bergh and the ASPCA, New York: Atheneum, 1991, pp. 23-26.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

While horses no longer roam the streets as unchecked as they did back in 1866, animals still play a vital
part, as pets, in the lives of New Yorkers. Although most pet owners care dutifully for their pets until
the end of their animals' natural lives, some do not. As a result, each year thousands of dogs, cats and
other animals become the City's responsibility.

Until the CACC assumed responsibility for animal care in New York City in 1995, the ASPCA handled the
care and control of animals which were lost or abandoned. Through 1976, the ASPCA funded these
activities with private donations from its members.[5] However, in 1977, the ASPCA sought
reimbursement for the provision of animal care and control services and entered into a contract with
the City's Department of Health (DOH). This first contract totaled $900,000 per year.[6] By 1994, the value
of the contract reached $4.5 million per year.[7] These contracts required the ASPCA to seize stray
animals, operate shelter facilities, accept owner-surrendered animals and provide euthanasia as
necessary.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5 / In 1995, the ASPCA received more than $10.3 million in contributions, grants, and membership fees. Annual Report, ASPCA, 1995.
6 / Briefing Paper, CACC Oversight Hearing, Committee on Health, New York City Council, February 9, 1995, p. 2.
7 / Agreement effective the first day of July, 1994 between the City of New York, acting by and through the Commissioner of Health of
the Department of Health of the City and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Despite the mutual benefits the ASPCA and the City initially derived from these contracts, the ASPCA's
relationship with City government in relation to its animal care and control responsibilities quickly
became contentious. In the early 1980's the tension was fueled by the ASPCA's allegations that the City
refused to pay the actual cost of providing animal care and control services. The relationship
worsened in 1985, when the City refused to pay $250,000 in overdue payment increases. This led the
ASPCA to threaten to close its Brooklyn Shelter, pull its ambulances off the street, and fire
approximately 80 employees.[8] Although this skirmish was settled, the City's worsening fiscal condition
in 1991 led DOH to cut the amount of the ASPCA's animal care and control contract by approximately
25%, from $5.05 million to $3.65 million.[9] At the time, the ASPCA's Chief Financial Officer, stated that
"[i]n the long run, animals on the street will suffer. They may die--and not a very humane death."[10]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10 / Mark Mooney, "The Warp and Woof of Politics," UPI, Regional News, New York Metro/New York, AM Cycle, October 31, 1985.
11 / William Bunch, "Animal Society Begs for Funds; Says Budget Cuts Mean City Will Go to the Dogs," Newsday, City Edition, July 18,
1991, p. 4.
12 / Ibid.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This budget reduction and past repeated disagreements about funding for animal care and control took
its toll on the ASPCA's willingness to continue to contract with the City. On March 23, 1993, the ASPCA
announced that it would no longer provide animal care and control services to the City.[11] According
to Roger Caras, President of the ASPCA, this decision reflected "the fact that the [C]ity would not offer
a renewal contract covering the ASPCA's actual costs to operate the shelter [system]."[12] In addition,
ASPCA spokesperson Joan Paylo stated that "'[Destroying unwanted or sick animals] is not what we see
as our major mission, which is to stop cruelty to animals and to stop overpopulation. We would like to
concentrate on the cause rather than [the] effect."[13] Mr. Caras later indicated that the ASPCA's cost
of operating the shelter system had exceeded City funding by approximately $2 million annually during
the last two years (1993 and 1994) of its contract with the City. [14]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11 / Margaret A. Hamburg, Commissioner, DOH, Testimony, CACC Oversight Hearing, Committee on Health, New York City Council,
February 9, 1995, pp. 8-9 (hereinafter referred to as Hamburg Testimony).
12 / Roger Caras, President, ASPCA, Letter to the Editor, New York Post, February 13, 1997, p. 34.
13 / Tracey L. Miller, "ASPCA to End Contract with New York City to Destroy Animals," UPI, Regional News, New York Metro/New York,
BC Cycle, March 25, 1993.
14 / Roger Caras, President, ASPCA, Letter to the Editor, New York Post, February 13, 1997, p. 34.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Despite the ASPCA's championing of the humane treatment of animals and the generous contributions
of its members, its provision of animal care and control services in New York City had been criticized.
For example, the ASPCA was accused of being cruel to the animals it received and held due to a myriad
of structural problems affecting its Manhattan Shelter, such as drainage systems which did not work
and pipes which leaked.[15] In addition, the ASPCA's rate of euthanasia was high, and its rate of
adoptions was low in comparison to rates nationwide. For example, in 1993, the ASPCA euthanized 71%
of the animals it received and adopted out just 14%. In 1994, the last year of its animal care contract the
ASPCA euthanized 75% of the animals it received and adopted out 16%. [16]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
15 / Seifman, David and Sandy Gonzalez, "ASPCA Picks Bone With Itself," New York Post, December 31, 1993.
16 / Materials submitted by the ASPCA to the Committee on Contracts, November 27, 1996. These percentages do not add to 100%
because some animals were dead on arrival, returned to owner, released by order, released to freedom, or placed as wildlife/exotics.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The ASPCA's decision to stop providing animal care and control services as of January 1, 1995, forced
the City to find a new provider willing to fill the void. Accordingly, on October 4, 1993--approximately
seven months after the ASPCA's announcement--DOH began the process of securing a new provider by
issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for "Animal Management Services."[17] This effort ultimately
failed, however, for reasons explained by Margaret A. Hamburg, the Commissioner of DOH:

...[D]espite the nationwide outreach we had conducted and despite the widespread publicity, locally
and nationally, about our interest in attracting a private organization to replace the ASPCA, only two
proposals were submitted in response to the RFP by the required December [6,] 1993 date.[18]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
17 / City of New York, Department of Health, Bureau of Veterinary Public Health Services, Request for Proposals for Animal
Management Services, Date of Issue: October 4, 1993, Pin No. 95AA002.
18 / Hamburg Testimony, p. 11.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Commissioner Hamburg further testified that neither proposal addressed the full scope of services
detailed in the RFP.[19] In a letter dated May 5, 1994, and addressed to the Dewey Animal Care Center,
one of the two bidders, DOH's Chief Contracting Officer wrote:

The Department of Health has completed its review of proposals submitted in response to the Animal
Care and Control RFP. Unfortunately, the Selection Committee could not [identify] a suitable proposal.
As a result of the Selection Committee's determination the Department will not issue an award, and has
terminated this solicitation.[20]

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
19 / Hamburg Testimony, p. 11.
20 / Letter from Richard Bonamarte, Agency Chief Contracting Officer, DOH to Drs. Eugene L. Kirshbaum and Joseph A. Freer, Dewey
Animal Care Center, May 5, 1994.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Commissioner Hamburg testified that DOH had also approached the ASPCA employees' union, Local 355
of the Service Employees International Union (AFL-CIO), about assuming responsibility for animal care
and control services in the City. According to Commissioner Hamburg, the union, citing a lack of
management experience, declined DOH's offer.[21]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
21 / Hamburg Testimony, p.12.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

After failing to identify a suitable provider through the RFP process, DOH began exploring other
alternatives. As Commissioner Hamburg explained:

At that point, without a viable private contractor available and with approximately nine months left until
the deadline to replace the ASPCA, the City's immediate options appeared to be to establish a new unit
within the Department of Health or to create a new City agency for animal control. Neither approach,
however, offered the operational benefits of an outside contractor. In addition, in this era of
downsizing government, the new administration preferred not to expand direct government functions.
Therefore, a decision was made to form a new, independent, not-for-profit organization that would
contract with the City to provide the services we sought.[22]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
22 / Ibid., p.11, (emphasis added).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The provision of animal care and control services had been largely privatized under the City's previous
contract with the ASPCA. The City's decision to create the CACC and to continue to contract for animal
care and control services preserved this arrangement.

The CACC was incorporated on August 23, 1994, under Section 402 of the New York State Not-For-Profit
Corporation Law for "the public and charitable purposes of providing animal care and control services
in the City of New York thereby lessening the burdens of government on behalf of the City."[23]
Although it is a not-for-profit corporation, the CACC's seven member Board of Directors includes as ex
officio members three commissioners of City agencies--the Commissioner of DOH, the Commissioner of
the Department of Sanitation (DOS) and the Deputy Commissioner for Community Affairs at the New
York City Police Department (NYPD). The four remaining members of the Board are appointed by the
Mayor.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
23 / Certificate of Incorporation of the Center for Animal Care and Control, Inc., No. 940823000, p.1.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The City and the CACC's first contract became effective on September 1, 1994, and extends through
December 31, 1997.[24] During the first four months of this contract, the ASPCA continued to provide
animal care and control services while the City laid the groundwork for the CACC to assume
responsibility for day-to-day operations on January 1, 1995. According to Commissioner Hamburg, the
City recognized that the CACC would be unable to construct facilities immediately, and, therefore
purchased, through condemnation proceedings, the ASPCA-owned Manhattan and Brooklyn Shelters
for the CACC's use. In addition, the City assumed the leases on the Bronx and Queens Receiving
Facilities from the ASPCA. The City had built and already owned the Staten Island Receiving Facility.[25]

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
24 / Agreement effective as of the first day of September, 1994 between the City of New York, acting by and through the Commissioner
of Health of the Department of Health of the City and the Center for Animal Care and Control (hereinafter referred to as the Agreement.)
25 / Hamburg Testimony, p. 14.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

During the four-month transition period, the CACC negotiated transition issues with the ASPCA and
began the purchase of new animal pick-up vehicles; solicited vendors; recruited and hired personnel;
and arranged for pro bono legal counsel.[26] The CACC's Board of Directors also hired Martin Kurtz,
Director of DOH's Bureau of Veterinary Public Health Services, as Executive Director of the CACC,
effective November 1994. In his former capacity, Mr. Kurtz had overseen the ASPCA's contract with the
City. Under Mr. Kurtz's direction, "[t]he CACC hired 100 of its 140 employees from the ASPCA."[27] With
an Executive Director in place and having hired its core employees, on January 1, 1995, the CACC
assumed day-to-day responsibility for animal care and control services in the City.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
26 / Abstracts of Minutes, Board of Directors' Meetings, CACC, September 1 - December 21, 1994.
27 / Graham Rayman, "Exec Defends Pet Shelters' Death Toll," New York Newsday, February 10, 1995.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The ASPCA's decision to terminate its contract with DOH presented the City with an opportunity to
overhaul the provision of animal care and control in the five boroughs. However, as the findings in this
report clearly show, the City did not seize this opportunity for reform. Instead, it bears full responsibility
for creating, controlling and overseeing an organization that has failed to effectively implement a
comprehensive animal care and control program.



METHODOLOGY
Between October 1996 and June 1997, Council staff conducted a comprehensive performance review
of the CACC at the request of Council Member Kathryn Freed, Chair of the Committee on Contracts. On
November 15, 1996, Chairwoman Freed formally requested documents pertaining to the delivery of
animal care and control services in New York City from DOH, the CACC, the ASPCA and DOS. The
requested documents included contracts, statistics on animal intake and disposition, monthly and
annual reports, budgets, staffing levels and patterns, minutes of the CACC's Board meetings and other
records.

Subsequent letters were prepared and delivered on December 23, 1996, January 15, 1997, January 24,
1997, March 21, 1997 and May 21, 1997. These letters primarily requested clarification and completion of
the responses to the initial requests as well as meetings with staff. On March 21, 1997, Chairwoman
Freed also requested information from the Economic Development Corporation concerning the
financing and construction of the Manhattan Shelter on East 110th Street and the ASPCA's
Headquarters on East 92nd Street.

Council staff interviewed many individuals including current and former CACC employees and
volunteers, rescuers and advocates, shelter directors, veterinarians, animal behaviorists, shelter
architects, attorneys specializing in animal issues and current and former ASPCA employees. In
addition, staff reviewed transcripts of prior Council hearings on animal care and control issues,
literature on animal care and control and shelter management, and State and Local Laws pertaining to
animals.

The Council's review of the CACC's operations included accompanying a CACC Animal Rescue Services
team responding to calls over a period of three hours and touring all five of the CACC's facilities. In
addition, to obtain a first-hand perspective on the provision of animal care and control services and
the operation of other public and private animal shelters, staff visited facilities operated by the ASPCA,
Bergen County Animal Shelter, Bide-A-Wee, the Humane Society of New York (HSNY), and the North
Shore Animal League (NSAL).

To complement their review of the CACC's operations, between November 22, 1996 and December 3,
1996, Council staff conducted a telephone survey of all 76 New York Police Department (NYPD)
precincts in the five boroughs.[28] The telephone numbers for the precincts were obtained from the
"Government Listings" section of the Nynex White Pages for each borough. Posing as the owner of a
lost dog, staff telephoned each police precinct to ask what they should do. This survey was intended to
test whether local police precincts, the entity many residents turn to when confronted with a crisis,
knew of the existence of the CACC and its role as the City's animal care and control provider.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
28 / Precinct #33 was telephoned on April 25, 1997, because no number was provided for it in the "Government Listings" section of
the NYNEX White Pages for Manhattan. The number called was obtained from The 1996-1997 Green Book: Official Directory of the
City of New York.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Finally, between October 1996 and June 1997, Council staff contacted the entities responsible for
animal care and control services in some of the most populous cities in the United States. Staff also
surveyed several smaller municipalities located in the Northeast as well as municipalities which were
described in various publications as operating successful animal care and control programs. The
purpose of this survey was trifold: to explore the range of models available for the provision of animal
care and control services; to request general statistical and budgetary data; and to determine whether
there are any innovative practices which might be replicated in New York City.

It is important to note that although the CACC is incorporated under Section 402 of the New York State
Not-For-Profit Corporation Law, the CACC's responses to Chairwoman Freed's requests were
coordinated and submitted by the Mayor's Office of City Legislative Affairs, with the assistance of DOH.
The CACC, DOH and the Mayor's Office often failed to respond in a complete and timely manner to the
Council's requests for information.



BACKGROUND
The City of New York contracts with the CACC for the provision of animal care and control services. The
City's contract specifically requires the CACC to:

seize, accept, house, feed, water, and exercise unwanted and stray animals;
provide adoption and spay/neuter services;
humanely euthanize animals as necessary;
enlist the aid of volunteers; and
conduct humane education and community outreach [29]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
29 / The Agreement, Part 1, Sections 1 and 2. See also, Annex A.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

To enable the CACC to perform these services, funds are provided pursuant to a $15 million contract
with DOH for the period of September 1, 1994 to December 31, 1997. The CACC's budget supports the
operation of five facilities, one in each borough, an Animal Rescue Services Unit and the employment
of 136 people.[30]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
30 / All staffing information in this section is based on materials submitted by the CACC to the Committee on Contracts on December
17, 1996 and is assumed to be accurate as of that date. Changes in staffing have occurred since that date and although some of
those changes are discussed in this report, the Council does not have a current list of CACC personnel. In addition, all staffing
numbers include both full-time and part-time employees. Information concerning services and hours of operation is based on
materials submitted by the CACC to the Committee on Contracts on December 17, 1996 as well as site visits and interviews by
Council staff.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The CACC documents its expenditures and revenues pursuant to this contract by submitting monthly
financial reports to DOH detailing the CACC's payroll and expenditures on Other Than Personnel
Services (OTPS). These reports provide a snapshot of the CACC's spending patterns in various
categories. Major costs include rent, insurance, supplies, food, medical equipment and security.

While the CACC's contract with the City pays for its annual operating expenses, the CACC also receives
capital funding from the City. Such capital funds pay for major acquisitions of equipment as well as for
the construction and renovation of its facilities. Current projects for which the CACC has received
capital funding are described later in this report.

In calendar year 1995, the CACC expended $5.1 million--31% on OTPS expenses and the other 69% on
salaries. In 1996, the CACC expended $5.2 million--28% on OTPS expenses and 72% on salaries.[31] The
provision of animal care and control services is very labor-intensive, and therefore a large amount of
the CACC's budget is allocated to personnel expenses. A significant portion of the CACC's personnel
expenses consists of salaries paid to the CACC's managerial staff.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
31 / The CACC's 1995 and 1996 budgets reflect the CACC's unadjusted end-of-year expenses.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






























































A review of the CACC's monthly financial reports indicates that overspending in some of the CACC's
budgeted categories during the past two years has generally been offset by under spending in others.
For example, in 1996, the CACC exceeded its shelter and pet receiving facilities' budgeted amounts for
medical supplies, general supplies, repairs and maintenance, food, telephones, pest control, medical
equipment, postage and uniforms. These over-expenditures, however, were offset by underspending
in the shelter and pet receiving facilities' budgeted amounts for gas and electricity, water and sewer
charges, vehicles, modules for vehicles, waste disposal, pet carriers and security guard services.

The following tables provide a complete account of the CACC's OTPS expenditures during 1996.



























































CACC's senior management consists of nine positions. These include: Executive Director; General
Counsel; Controller; Chief Veterinarian and Director of Operations; Deputy Director of Operations;
Volunteer Coordinator; Director of Human Resources; Director of Public Relations; and Director of
Facilities Maintenance. In addition, each shelter and receiving facility is staffed with a Director, and the
Manhattan and Brooklyn shelters both employ Adoption Coordinators. The senior managerial staff is
assisted by seven administrative personnel. The CACC's Executive Director, Martin Kurtz, abruptly
resigned in February, 1997, in the midst of the Council's investigation.[32 ] The position remains vacant
as of June 13, 1997.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
32 / Mr. Kurtz is a permanent civil servant who was on a leave of absence from DOH during his entire tenure as Executive Director of
the CACC, and has reportedly returned to a position within DOH unrelated to animal care and control. In response to a request for any
opinions regarding Mr. Kurtz' employment status at DOH and the CACC, the DOH asserted that "[t]he Health Commissioner
requested and received the advice of the Law Department in a manner that is attorney-client privileged. Letter from Frederic Winters,
Associate Commissioner, DOH, to Catherine McAlevey, Director, Office of Oversight and Investigation, December 17, 1996.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

While each facility has its own staff, each is also supported by one part-time Veterinarian and one
part-time Animal Care Specialist who rotate among the various shelters and receiving facilities as
needed. The services offered by the CACC's facilities as well as hours of operation and staffing levels
vary.

The Manhattan Shelter is a full-service facility. It accepts and houses lost or unwanted animals,
performs initial examinations and medical treatment, offers animals for adoption and euthanizes
animals who are sick, who are labeled "unadoptable," or for whom there is not sufficient cage space.
The Manhattan Shelter is located in a mixed commercial and residential area in East Harlem and is open
to the public from 11:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. for adoptions, seven days a week. When the facility is not open
for adoptions, there is at least one staff person at the facility on a 24 hour basis to handle emergencies.
The facility has 16 animal wards, an examination room, an euthanasia room, a freezer for animal
carcasses, and an outdoor dog run. It is staffed by a Director, an Assistant Director, a Veterinarian, an
Adoption Coordinator, a Special Rescue Services Coordinator, an Office Manager, 11 administrative,
intake and adoption staff, five veterinary assistants and 28 kennel workers.

The Brooklyn Shelter, located in an industrial area in East New York, is also a full-service facility.
However, it is only open to the public from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Tuesday through Saturday. The
Brooklyn Shelter has 10 animal wards, an examination room, an euthanasia room, and a freezer for
animal carcasses. The facility also houses the Animal Rescue Services Unit, including its dispatch area.
All calls from City residents or agencies requesting the pick up of unwanted or stray animals are
handled by this unit. Until renovations began several weeks ago, the shelter also housed an ASPCA
clinic which provided spay/neuter surgeries to some animals which had been adopted from the CACC
and medical treatment to the pets of Brooklyn residents. The shelter is staffed by a Director, an
Assistant Director, a Veterinarian, an Adoption Coordinator, eight administrative, intake and adoption
staff, three veterinary assistants, and 23 kennel workers.

The three CACC receiving facilities offer fewer services than the Manhattan or Brooklyn Shelters. The
Staten Island Receiving Facility is located in the Charleston area of Staten Island and is open to the
public from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., seven days per week. It accepts and shelters unwanted animals and
provides initial examinations and adoption services. Animals requiring medical treatment or which are
to be euthanized are transferred to the Brooklyn Shelter. The Staten Island facility contains one arrival
ward and one adoption ward, an examination room, and a freezer for animal carcasses. It is staffed by a
Director, one person who performs administrative work, intakes, and adoptions, and six kennel
attendants.

The Bronx Receiving Facility is essentially a drop-off location for unwanted animals. It is located near
Fordham University in the Belmont area of the Bronx and is open to the public from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00
p.m., Tuesday through Saturday. Animals cannot be sheltered overnight at this location. Instead, a few
animals are transported from the Manhattan Shelter to this facility in the mornings and offered for
adoption. In the late afternoon, any animals which have not been adopted, as well as all animals
accepted during the day, are returned to the Manhattan Shelter. The Bronx Receiving Facility consists
of three rooms containing 45 cages and a freezer for animal carcasses. It is staffed by three kennel
attendants.

The Queens Receiving Facility in Rego Park is open to the public from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., Tuesday
through Saturday. It fulfills the same functions as its Bronx counterpart. Animals to be adopted and
animals received during the day are transported to and from the Brooklyn Shelter. The Queens
Receiving Facility also consists of three rooms, but contains only 23 cages and a freezer for animal
carcasses. It is staffed by one person who performs administrative work, intakes and adoptions, and
one kennel attendant. The Bronx and Queens Receiving Facilities are managed by the same Director
who divides his time between the two facilities. The two facilities are also served by a single animal
rescue worker.

The Animal Rescue Services Unit operates out of the Brooklyn Shelter, 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Monday
through Friday. The unit is comprised of a Director, an Assistant Director, five dispatchers and nine
animal rescue workers. Animal Rescue Services has nine 1995 GMC Duravans and two 1990 GM Safari
Minivans. The Unit receives approximately 200 calls per day to pick up lost, sick, or unwanted animals.
Calls are prioritized, and the most urgent ones are responded to first. According to Barry Lerner, the
Director of the Unit, approximately 50% of the calls are never responded to because of the volume of
calls received.[33] Seven of the rescue vehicles are on the road continuously, at least one in each
borough. The other vehicles are stationed at CACC facilities unless they are required in the field.
Animal Rescue Services also conducts round-ups of stray animals, when possible. A driver, reachable
by beeper, is available to handle emergencies 24 hours per day.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
33 / Barry Lerner, Director, Animal Rescue Services Unit, CACC, January 3, 1997.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


The CACC's 136 staff members, together with its five facilities and animal rescue vans comprise the
animal care and control system responsible for providing services to more than 7.3 million New
Yorkers who own more than 2 million pets. In the CACC's first two years of operation, many of these
pets have passed through the CACC's doors. In calendar years 1995 and 1996 the CACC accepted over
120,000 animals into its shelters and receiving facilities. As the following charts reveal, the CACC
euthanized the vast majority of the animals it received in 1995 and 1996--71% in both years.































































--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Click Here To Go To Part 3